Acquired Brain Injury

Cognitive Remediation


 
ETIOLOGY

There are several causes for an acquired brain injury and the causes fall into two types of brain injuries. The injuries also vary in degrees depending on the cause, and can range from a momentary loss of consciousness (which can happen from a punch to the face, for example) to a long-term bout of unconsciousness or coma. Brain injury can be prevented 90% of the time with proper training, equipment and attention.

ONSET

Brain injury can occur either through sudden onset which caused by trauma, infection, lack of oxygen, strokes or drug use episodes or insidious onset which occurs from prolonged alcohol or substance abuse, tumors or degenerative neurological diseases.

SYMPTOMS

There are many causes for ABI, the six most common causes of ABI are listed below.

PREVALENCE

Among the various causes of ABI, traumatic brain injury and stroke are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. According to the CDC, 2.5 million sustain a TBI each year in the United States. A single statistic that includes all the forms of ABI is difficult to find, but separate statistics for each individual cause of ABI exist.

85 %


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Acquired Brain Injury

Learning and attention issues are brain-based difficulties in reading, writing, math, organization, focus, listening comprehension, social skills, motor skills or a combination of these. Learning and attention issues are not the result of low intelligence, poor vision or hearing, or lack of access to quality instruction.

Symptoms

The specific symptoms or losses of functioning depend on which brain areas are affected. The long-term effects of brain injury are difficult to predict. They will be different for each person and can range from mild to profound. Brain injury does not diminish a person’s intelligence, it merely alters how the brain performs tasks. It is common for many people with ABI to experience increased fatigue (mental and physical) and some slowing down in how fast they can process information, plan and solve problems. They may experience changes to their behavior and personality, physical and sensory abilities, or thinking and learning.

Types of Acquired Brain Injuries

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Non-Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is defined as an alteration in brain function, or other evidence of brain pathology, caused by an external force such as falls, assaults, motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries and concussions.

A Non-Traumatic Brain Injury refers to any type of brain damage that occurs after birth. It can include damage sustained by near drowning, aneurysm, tumor, and lack of oxygen supply to the brain.

Variety of Treatment Programs for ABI
  • Acute rehabilitation programs
  • Sub-acute rehabilitation programs
  • Long-term rehabilitation programs
  • Transitional living programs
  • Behavior management programs
  • Day-treatment programs
  • Independent living programs

COGx & ABI

COGx programs can be an important part of the equation of services needed for ABI survivors, particularly to target and remediate cognition. Common symptoms post-ABI include inattentiveness and poor memory, along with poor Executive Functions (impulse control, cognitive flexibility, planning and organization, self-regulation, etc). COGx programs can help fill the gap left by other therapies that may be more focused on necessary compensation strategies.

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