Our Research & Evidence-Base

Our Research & Evidence-Base

Scientific Literature Supporting COGx Programs

COGx programs involve translation of research from over 1,150 scientific sources. The scientific literature below is a subset of the literature we have used and organized by subject area to facilitate access. In addition, we have worked directly with some of the authors of the scientific literature to help us translate and co-create our programs. Many of the scientific papers cited below were written by COGx Academic Partners.

Taya, F., Sun, Y., Babiloni, F., Thakor, N., & Bezerianos, A. (2015). Brain enhancement through cognitive training: A new insight from brain connectome. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 9, Article 44. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2015.00044


Simons, D. J. (2000). Attentional capture and inattentional blindness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(4), 147-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1364-6613(00)01455-8 

Steinmayr, R., Ziegler, M., & Träuble, B. (2010). Do intelligence and sustained attention interact in predicting academic achievement? Learning and Individual Differences, 20(1), 14-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2009.10.009 

Tang, Y. Y., Ma, Y., Wang, J., Fan, Y., Feng, S., Lu, Q., Yu, Q., Sui, D., Rothbart, M. K., Fan, M., & Posner, M. I. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(43), 17152-17156. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0707678104 

Willis, J. (2010, May 9). Want children to “pay attention”? Make their brains curious!. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/radical-teaching/201005/want-children-pay-attention-make-their-brains-curious

Wine, J. (1971). Test anxiety and direction of attention. Psychological Bulletin, 76(2), 92-104. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0031332

Processing Speed

Chiaravalloti, N. D., Christodoulou, C., Demaree, H. A., & DeLuca, J. (2003). Differentiating simple versus complex processing speed: Influence on new learning and memory performance. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(4), 489-501. https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.25.4.489.13878

Kyllonen, P. C., Tirre, W. C., & Chttps://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1076/jcen.25.4.489.13878hristal, R. E. (1991). Knowledge and processing speed as determinants of associative learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120(1), 57-79. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.120.1.57

The Understood Team. (n.d.). Slow processing speed and anxiety: What you need to know. Understood. https://www.understood.org/articles/en/slow-processing-speed-and-anxiety-what-you-need-to-know

Working Memory

Ashcraft, M. H., & Kirk, E. P. (2001). The relationships among working memory, math anxiety, and performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(2), 224-237. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.130.2.224

Baddeley, A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford University Press

Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(11), 417-423. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01538-2

Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: Looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(10), 829-839. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1201

Baddeley, A. (2007). Working memory, thought, and action (Vol. 45). OuP Oxford.

Baddeley, A. D., & Andrade, J. (2000). Working memory and the vividness of imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 129(1), 126-145. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.129.1.126

Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. (1974). Working memory. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 8, 47-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60452-1

Beilock, S. L., & Carr, T. H. (2005). When high-powered people fail: Working memory and “choking under pressure” in math. Psychological Science, 16(2), 101-105. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.00789.x

Chase, W. G., & Ericsson, K. A. (1982). Skill and working memory. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 16, 1-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60546-0

Engle, R. W., & Kane, M. J. (2004). Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor Theory of Cognitive Control. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 44, 145–199).

Gathercole, S. E., Pickering, S. J., Knight, C., & Stegmann, Z. (2004). Working memory skills and educational attainment: Evidence from national curriculum assessments at 7 and 14 years of age. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.934 

Kuhn, J. T. (2016). Controlled attention and storage: An investigation of the relationship between working memory, short-term memory, scope of attention, and intelligence in children. Learning and Individual Differences, 52, 167-177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.04.009

Rai, M. K., Loschky, L. C., Harris, R. J., Peck, N. R., & Cook, L. G. (2011). Effects of stress and working memory capacity on foreign language readers’ inferential processing during comprehension. Language Learning, 61(1), 187-218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2010.00592.x


Courage, M. L., Bakhtiar, A., Fitzpatrick, C., Kenny, S., & Brandeau, K. (2015). Growing up multitasking: The costs and benefits for cognitive development. Developmental Review, 35, 5–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2014.12.002 

Foerde, K., Knowlton, B. J., & Poldrack, R. A. (2006). Modulation of competing memory systems by distraction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(31), 11778-11783. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0602659103 

Rosen, L. D., Lim, A. F., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2011). An empirical examination of the educational impact of text message-induced task switching in the classroom: Educational implications and strategies to enhance learning. Educational Psychology, 17(2), 163-177. https://doi.org/10.5093/ed2011v17n2a4 

Uncapher, M. R., K Thieu, M., & Wagner, A. D. (2016). Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(2), 483-490. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0907-3


McClelland, J. L., Rumelhart, D. E., & PDP Research Group. (1987). Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition: Psychological and biological models (Vol. 2). MIT press.

Paivio, A. (2013). Dual coding theory, word abstractness, and emotion: A critical review of Kousta et al. (2011). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(1), 282–287. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027004

Multimedia Learning

Mayer, R.E. (2001). Multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (1999). Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 358-368. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.2.358

Alvarez, J. A., & Emory, E. (2006). Executive function and the frontal lobes: A meta-analytic review. Neuropsychology Review, 16(1), 17-42. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-006-9002-x

Chan, R. C., Shum, D., Toulopoulou, T., & Chen, E. Y. (2008). Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 23(2), 201-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2007.08.010

Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333(6045), 959-964. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1204529

McCabe, D. P., Roediger, H. L., III, McDaniel, M. A., Balota, D. A., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2010). The relationship between working memory capacity and executive functioning: Evidence for a common executive attention construct. Neuropsychology, 24(2), 222-243. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017619

Meltzer, L., & Greschler, M. (2018, October). Executive function strategies: The building blocks for reading to learn. The Examiner, 7(4). https://dyslexiaida.org/executive-function-strategies-the-building-blocks-for-reading-to-learn/#

Pascual, A. C., Muñoz, N. M., & Robres, A. Q. (2019). The relationship between executive functions and academic performance in primary education: Review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in psychology, 10, Article 1582. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01582 

Emotion Regulation

Davis, E. L., & Levine, L. J. (2013). Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: Reappraisal enhances children’s memory for educational information. Child Development, 84(1), 361-374. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01836.x 

Williams, P. G., Suchy, Y., & Rau, H. K. (2009). Individual differences in executive functioning: Implications for stress regulation. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37(2), 126-140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-009-9100-0

Planning & Organization

Eylon, B. S., & Reif, F. (1984). Effects of knowledge organization on task performance. Cognition and Instruction, 1(1), 5-44. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532690xci0101_2


Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57(9), 705-717. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.57.9.705

Matin, A. J. (2013). Goal setting and personal best goals. In E. M. Anderman, & J. Hattie (Eds.), International guide to student achievement (pp. 356-358). Routledge.

Memory & Knowledge

Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 2, 89-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(08)60422-3

Bahrick, H. P. (1979). Maintenance of knowledge: Questions about memory we forgot to ask. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108(3), 296-308. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.108.3.296

Ebbinghaus, H. (1885). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology. Annals of Neuroscience, 20(4), 155-156. https://doi.org/10.5214/ans.0972.7531.200408 

Forrin, N. D., & MacLeod, C. M. (2018). This time it’s personal: The memory benefit of hearing oneself. Memory, 26(4), 574-579. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2017.1383434

Gates, A. I. (1917). Recitation as a factor in memorizing. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(40), 1-104.

Hoque, E. (2018). Memorization: A proven method of learning. International Journal of Applied Research, 22(3), 142-150.

Jacoby, L. L. (1978). On interpreting the effects of repetition: Solving a problem versus remembering a solution. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17(6), 649-667. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(78)90393-6

Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(4), 803-814. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.21.4.803 

Tulving, E. (1985). How many memory systems are there?. American Psychologist, 40(4), 385-398. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.4.385

Wang, Y., Liu, D., & Wang, Y. (2003). Discovering the capacity of human memory. Brain and Mind, 4(2), 189-198. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025405628479 

Willingham, D. T. (2008). Ask the Cognitive Scientist: What Will Improve a Student’s Memory?. American Educator, 32(4), 17- 25.

Prior Knowledge

Clement, J. (1982). Students’ preconceptions in introductory mechanics. American Journal of Physics, 50(1), 66-71. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.12989

Hailikari, T., Katajavuori, N., & Lindblom-Ylanne, S. (2008). The relevance of prior knowledge in learning and instructional design. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(5), Article 113. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7205113

Peeck, J., Van den Bosch, A. B., & Kreupeling, W. J. (1982). Effect of mobilizing prior knowledge on learning from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(5), 771-777. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.74.5.771


Callender, A. A., & McDaniel, M. A. (2009). The limited benefits of rereading educational texts. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34(1), 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.07.001

Mind mapping

Nesbit, J. C., & Adesope, O. O. (2006). Learning with concept and knowledge maps: A meta-analysis. Review of educational research, 76(3), 413-448.


Cloke, H. (2018, March 30). What is the forgetting curve (and how do you combat it)? eLearning Industry. https://elearningindustry.com/forgetting-curve-combat 

Lemov, D. (2021, February 8). An annotated forgetting curve. Teach Like a  Champion. https://teachlikeachampion.com/blog/an-annotated-forgetting-curve/ 


Agarwal, P. K., Roediger, H. L., III, McDaniel, M. A., & McDermott, K. B. (2020). How to use retrieval practice to improve learning. Washington University in St. Louis. http://pdf.retrievalpractice.org/RetrievalPracticeGuide.pdf

Arnold, K. M., & McDermott, K. B. (2013). Test-potentiated learning: Distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39(3), 940945.https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029199

Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (2019a). Forgetting as the friend of learning: Implications for teaching and self-regulated learning. Advances in Physiology Education, 43(2), 164-167. https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00001.2019

Karpicke, J. D., & Blunt, J. R. (2011). Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. Science, 331(6018), 772-775. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1199327

Karpicke, J. D., & Roediger, H. L., III. (2008). The critical importance of retrieval for learning. Science, 319(5865), 966-968. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1152408 

Leeming, F. C. (2002). The exam-a-day procedure improves performance in psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 29(3), 210-212. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328023TOP2903_06

McDaniel, M. A., Wildman, K. M., & Anderson, J. L. (2012). Using quizzes to enhance summative-assessment performance in a web-based class: An experimental study. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1(1), 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2011.10.001

Miyatsu, T., Nguyen, K., & McDaniel, M. A. (2018). Five popular study strategies: Their pitfalls and optimal implementations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(3), 390-407. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617710510

Roediger, H. L., III, & Butler, A. C. (2011). The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(1), 20-27. https://doi.org.10.1016/j.tics.2010.09.003

Roediger, H. L., III, & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). The power of testing memory: Basic research and implications for educational practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(3), 181-210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00012.x

Roediger, H. L. III, Putnam, A. L., & Smith, M. A. (2011). Ten benefits of testing and their applications to educational practice. In J. P. Mestre & B. H. Ross (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Cognition in education (Vol. 55, pp. 1–36). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-387691-1.00001-6 

Smith, E. E., Adams, N., & Schorr, D. (1978). Fact retrieval and the paradox of interference. Cognitive Psychology, 10(4), 438-464. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(78)90007-5

Desirable Difficulties

Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (2011). Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. In M. A. Gernsbacher, R. W. Pew, L. M. Hough, J. R. Pomerantz (Eds.) & FABBS Foundation, Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society (pp. 55–64). Worth.

Bjork, R. A. (1994). Memory and metamemory considerations in the training of human beings. In J. Metcalfe, & A Shimamura (Eds.), Metacognition: Knowing About Knowing (pp. 185-205). MIT Press.


Benjamin, A. S., & Bird, R. D. (2006). Metacognitive control of the spacing of study repetitions. Journal of Memory and Language, 55(1), 126-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2006.02.003

Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (2019b). The myth that blocking one’s study or practice by topic or skill enhances learning. In C. Barton (Ed.), Education myths: An evidence-informed guide for teachers, (pp. 57-69). John Catt Educational.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2011). Optimizing schedules of retrieval practice for durable and efficient learning: How much is enough?. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140(3), 283-302. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023956


Brunmair, M., & Richter, T. (2019). Similarity matters: A meta-analysis of interleaved learning and its moderators. Psychological Bulletin, 145(11), 1029. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000209

Pan, S. C. (2015, August 4). The interleaving effect: Mixing it up boosts learning. Scientific American. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-interleaving-effect-mixing-it-up-boosts-learning/ 

Yan, V. X., & Sana, F. (2021). Does the interleaving effect extend to unrelated concepts? Learners’ beliefs versus empirical evidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 113(1), 125.  https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000470


Bradshaw, G. L., & Anderson, J. R. (1982). Elaborative encoding as an explanation of levels of processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21(2), 165-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(82)90531-X

Simpson, M. L., & Nist, S. L. (1990). Textbook annotation: An effective and efficient study strategy for college students. Journal of Reading, 34(2), 122-129.

Cambridge International Education Teaching and Learning Team. (n.d.). Getting started with metacognition. https://cambridge-community.org.uk/professional-development/gswmeta/index.html

Dunlosky, J., & Metcalfe, J. (2008). Metacognition. Sage Publications.

Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231-235). Lawrence Erlbaum.

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.906

Karpicke, J. D., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L., III. (2009). Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own?. Memory, 17(4), 471-479. https://doi.org/10.1080/09658210802647009 

Kim, H. J., & Pedersen, S. (2010). Young adolescents’ metacognition and domain knowledge as predictors of hypothesis-development performance in a computer-supported context. Educational Psychology, 30(5), 565-582.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2010.491937

Knaack, L., & Robertson,, M. (n.d.). Ten metacognitive teaching strategies. Centre for Innovation and Excellence in Learning.

Owen, D. & Vista, A. (2017, November 15). Strategies for teaching metacognition in classrooms. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2017/11/15/strategies-for-teaching-metacognition-in-classrooms/

Price-Mitchell, M. (2015, April 7). Metacognition: Nurturing self-awareness in the classroom. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/blog/8-pathways-metacognition-in-classroom-marilyn-price-mitchell

Schraw, G. (1998). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. Instructional Science, 26(1), 113-125. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003044231033

Spencer, J. (2018, August 13). Five ways to boost metacognition in the classroom. https://spencerauthor.com/metacognition/

Steiner, H. (2017, November 22). Introducing metacognition to students. Improve with Metacognition. https://www.improvewithmetacognition.com/introducing-metacognition-to-students/

Tanner, K. D. (2012). Promoting student metacognition. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 11(2), 113-120. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.12-03-0033

Veenman, M. V., Hout-Wolters, V., Bernadette, H. A. M., & Afflerbach, P. (2006). Metacognition and learning: Conceptual and methodological considerations. Metacognition and Learning, 1, 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-006-6893-0

Metacognitive Knowledge

Bjork, R. A. (1999). Assessing our own competence: Heuristics and illusions. In D. Gopher & A Koriat (Eds.), Attention and performance XVII: Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application, (pp. 435 – 459). The MIT Press.

Chua, E. F., Schacter, D. L., & Sperling, R. A. (2009). Neural correlates of metamemory: A comparison of feeling-of-knowing and retrospective confidence judgments. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21(9), 1751-1765. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21123

Couchman, J. J., Miller, N. E., Zmuda, S. J., Feather, K., & Schwartzmeyer, T. (2016). The instinct fallacy: The metacognition of answering and revising during college exams. Metacognition and Learning, 11(2), 171-185. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-015-9140-8

Gilovich, T. (1991). How we know what isn’t so: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. Free Press.

Koriat, A., & Bjork, R. A. (2005). Illusions of competence in monitoring one’s knowledge during study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 31(2), 187-194. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.31.2.187

Koriat, A., & Levy-Sadot, R. (1999). Processes underlying metacognitive judgments: Information-based and experience-based monitoring of one’s own knowledge. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 483–502). The Guilford Press.

Kruger, J., & Dunning, D. (1999). Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one’s own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1121-1134. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121

Nickerson, R. S. (1999). How we know—and sometimes misjudge—what others know: Imputing one’s own knowledge to others. Psychological Bulletin, 125(6), 737-759. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.737

Young, A., & Fry, J. D. (2008). Metacognitive awareness and academic achievement in college students. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 8(2), 1-10.

Metacognitive Regulation

Finley, J. R., Tullis, J. G., & Benjamin, A. S. (2010). Metacognitive control of learning and remembering. In M. S. Khine, & I. M. Saleh (Eds.), New science of learning, (pp. 109-131). Springer.

Metcalfe, J., & Kornell, N. (2005). A region of proximal learning model of study time allocation. Journal of Memory and Language, 52(4), 463-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2004.12.001

Son, L. K., & Metcalfe, J. (2000). Metacognitive and control strategies in study-time allocation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26(1), 204-221. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.26.1.204


Brookhart, S. M. (2017). How to give effective feedback to your students (2nd ed.). ASCD.

Burnett, P. C. (2002). Teacher praise and feedback and students’ perceptions of the classroom environment. Educational Psychology, 22(1), 5-16. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410120101215

Burnett, P. C., & Mandel, V. (2010). Praise and feedback in the primary classroom: Teachers’ and students’ perspectives. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 10, 145-154.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487

Hattie, J. A., & Yates, G. C. (2014). Using feedback to promote learning. In. V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.), Applying science of learning in education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum, (pp. 45-58). Society for the Teaching of Psychology.

Kulhavy, R. W. (1977). Feedback in written instruction. Review of Educational Research, 47(1), 211-232. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543047002211

Opitz, B., Ferdinand, N. K., & Mecklinger, A. (2011). Timing matters: The impact of immediate and delayed feedback on artificial language learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5(8), 1-9.

Samuels, S. J., & Wu, Y. (2003). The effects of immediate feedback on reading achievement. University of Minnesota.

Smith, H., & Higgins, S. (2006). Opening classroom interaction: The importance of feedback. Cambridge Journal of Education, 36(4), 485-502. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057640601048357

Sprouls, K., Mathur, S. R., & Upreti, G. (2015). Is positive feedback a forgotten classroom practice? Findings and implications for at-risk students. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 59(3), 153-160. https://doi.org/10.1080/1045988X.2013.876958

Voerman, L., Meijer, P. C., Korthagen, F. A., & Simons, R. J. (2012). Types and frequencies of feedback interventions in classroom interaction in secondary education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1107-1115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.06.006

William, D. (2016, April 1). The secret of effective feedback. ASCD. https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/the-secret-of-effective-feedback 

Wisniewski, B., Zierer, K., & Hattie, J. (2020). The power of feedback revisited: A meta-analysis of educational feedback research. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 3087.

Deliberate Practice

Burkholder, E., Salehi, S., Sackeyfio, S., Mohamed-Hinds, N., & Wieman, C. (2021). An equitable and effective approach to introductory mechanics. Cornell University: Physics Education. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2111.12504 

Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100(3), 363-406. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363

Gobet, F., & Campitelli, G. (2007). The role of domain-specific practice, handedness, and starting age in chess. Developmental Psychology, 43(1), 159-172. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.159a

Formative Assessment

Alber, R. (2011, February 15). Why formative assessments matter. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/blog/formative-assessments-importance-of-rebecca-alber

Bakula, N. (2010). The benefits of formative assessments for teaching and learning. Science Scope, 34(1), 37-43.

Chappuis, S., & Chappuis, J. (2007). The best value in formative assessment. In M. Sherer (Ed.), Challenging the whole child: Reflections on best practice in learning, teaching and leadership (pp. 219-226). ASCD.

Graham, S., Harris, K., and Hebert, M. A. (2011). Informing writing: The benefits of formative assessment. A Carnegie corporation time to act report. Alliance for Excellent Education.

Hanover Research. (2014). The impact of formative assessment and learning intentions on student achievement. District Administration Practice. https://www.hanoverresearch.com/media/The-Impact-of-Formative-Assessment-and-Learning-Intentions-on-Student-Achievement.pdf

Leahy, S., Lyon, C., Thompson, M., & Wiliam, D. (2005). Classroom assessment: Minute by minute, day by day. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 18-24.

Sadler, D. R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18(2), 119-144. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00117714

Sparks, S. P. (2015). Types of assessments: A head-to-head comparison. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/teaching-learning/types-of-assessments-a-head-to-head-comparison

Wasserman, J., & Beyerlein, S. W. (2007). SII method for assessment reporting. In S. W. Beyerlein, C. Holmes, & D. K. Apple (Eds.), Faculty guidebook: A comprehensive tool for improving faculty performance (4th ed.). Pacific Crest.

Peer-Based Learning

Boud, D., Cohen, R., & Sampson, J. (2001). Peer learning in higher education. Taylor & Francis.  

Cho, K., Schunn, C. D., & Wilson, R. W. (2006). Validity and reliability of scaffolded peer assessment of writing from instructor and student perspectives. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(4), 891-901. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.98.4.891

Chung, H. M., & Behan, K. J. (2010). Peer sharing facilitates the effect of inquiry-based projects on science learning. The American Biology Teacher, 72(1), 24-29. https://doi.org/10.1525/abt.2010.72.1.7

Gupta, M. L. (2004). Enhancing student performance through cooperative learning in physical sciences. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 29(1), 63-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/0260293032000158162

King, A. (2002). Structuring peer interaction to promote high-level cognitive processing. Theory Into Practice, 41(1), 33-39. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4101_6

Köse, S., Şahin, A., Ergü, A., & Gezer, K. (2010). The effects of cooperative learning experience on eighth grade students’ achievement and attitude toward science. Education, 131(1). https://doi.org/10.5430/ijhe.v3n2p131

Lord, T. R. (2001). 101 reasons for using cooperative learning in biology teaching. The American Biology Teacher, 63(1), 30-38. https://doi.org/10.2307/4451027

Mazur, E. (1997). Peer instruction: A user’s manual. Prentice Hall.

Sousa, D. A., & Toth, M. D. (2020, May 28). Neuroscience supports successful student academic teams. ASCD. https://www.ascd.org/el/articles/neuroscience-supports-successful-student-academic-teams

Thurston, A., Topping, K. J., Tolmie, A., Christie, D., Karagiannidou, E., & Murray, P. (2010). Cooperative learning in science: Follow‐up from primary to high school. International Journal of Science Education, 32(4), 501-522. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690902721673

Blondal, K. S., & Adalbjarnardottir, S. (2012). Student disengagement in relation to expected and unexpected educational pathways. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 56(1), 85-100. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2011.568607

Calderon, V. J., & Yu, D. (2017, June 1). Student enthusiasm falls as high school graduation nears. Gallup. https://news.gallup.com/opinion/gallup/211631/student-enthusiasm-falls-high-school-graduation-nears.aspx

Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C. (2011). Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class. Science, 332(6031), 862-864. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1201783 

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543074001059

Gallup Student Poll. (2015). Engaged today — ready for tomorrow. http://www.gallupstudentpoll.com/

Lei, H., Cui, Y., & Zhou, W. (2018). Relationships between student engagement and academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46(3), 517-528. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.7054

Martin, J., & Torres, A. (2016). I. What is student engagement and why is it important. In User’s guide and toolkit for the surveys of student engagement: The high school survey of student engagement (HSSSE) and the middle grades survey of student engagement (MGSSE). National Association of Independent Schools.

Seymour, E., & Hewitt, N. M. (1997). Talking about leaving: Why undergraduates leave the sciences. Westview Press.

Wylie, C., & Hodgen, E. (2012). Trajectories and patterns of student engagement: Evidence from a longitudinal study. In S. L. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 585-599). Springer.


Ames, C. (1990). Motivation: What teachers need to know. Teachers College Record, 91(3), 409-421.

Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261-271. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.3.261

Anderman, L. H., & Anderman, E. M. (2009). Oriented towards mastery: Promoting positive motivational goals for students. In R. Gilman, E. S. Huebner, & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in schools (pp. 161–173). Routledge.

Anderman, E. M., Urdan, T., & Roeser, R. (2003, March). The patterns of adaptive learning survey: History, development, and psychometric properties. Paper prepared for the Indicators of Positive Development Conference, Washington D.C.

Anderman, E. M., & Wolters, C. A. (2006). Goals, Values, and Affect: Influences on Student Motivation. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 369–389). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Belland, B. R., Kim, C., & Hannafin, M. J. (2013). A framework for designing scaffolds that improve motivation and cognition. Educational Psychologist, 48(4), 243-270. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2013.838920

Davis, K. D., Winsler, A., & Middleton,M. (2006). Students’ perceptions of rewards for academic performance by parents and teachers: Relations with achievement and motivation in college. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 167(2), 211-220. https://doi.org/10.3200/GNTP.167.2.211-220

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). The paradox of achievement: The harder you push, the worse it gets. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp. 61-87). Academic Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). Optimizing students’ motivation in the era of testing and pressure: A self-determination theory perspective. In W. C. Liu, J. C. K. Wang, & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Building autonomous learners, (pp. 9-29). Springer, Singapore.

Di Domenico, S. I., & Ryan, R. M. (2017). The emerging neuroscience of intrinsic motivation: A new frontier in self-determination research. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11(145), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2017.00145

Hulleman, C. S., & Barron, K. E. (2016). Motivation interventions in education. In L. Corno, & E. M. Anderman (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (3rd ed., pp. 160-171). Routledge.

Maehr, M. L., & Meyer, H. A. (1997). Understanding motivation and schooling: Where we’ve been, where we are, and where we need to go. Educational Psychology Review, 9(4), 371-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024750807365

Meece, J. L., Anderman, E. M., & Anderman, L. H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 487-503. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070258

Schunk, D. H., Meece, J. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (2014). Motivation in education: Theory, Research, and Applications. Pearson.

Stipeck, D. J. (2002). Motivation to learn: Integrating theory and practice. Allyn and Bacon.

Tuckman, B. W. (2003). The effect of learning and motivation strategies training on college students’ achievement. Journal of College Student Development, 44(3), 430-437. https://doi.org/10.1353/csd.2003.0034

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. Wiley.

Active Learning

Sedlacek, M., & Sedova, K. (2017). How many are talking? The role of collectivity in dialogic teaching. International Journal of Educational Research, 85, 99-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2017.07.001

Sturm, H., & Bogner, F. X. (2008). Student‐oriented versus teacher‐centered: The effect of learning at workstations about birds and bird flight on cognitive achievement and motivation. International Journal of Science Education, 30(7), 941-959. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690701313995

Taraban, R., Box, C., Myers, R., Pollard, R., & Bowen, C. W. (2007). Effects of active‐learning experiences on achievement, attitudes, and behaviors in high school biology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(7), 960-979. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20183

Turner, S. L. (2011). Student-centered instruction: Integrating the learning sciences to support elementary and middle school learners. Preventing School Failure, 55(3), 123-131. https://doi.org/10.1080/10459880903472884

Wieman, C. E. (2014). Large-scale comparison of science teaching methods sends clear message. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8319-8320. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1407304111

Student Mindsets & Attitude

Aronson, J., Fried, C. B., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 113-125. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491

Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.00995.x 

Broda, M., Yun, J., Schneider, B., Yeager, D. S., Walton, G. M., & Diemer, M. (2018). Reducing inequality in academic success for incoming college students: A randomized trial of growth mindset and belonging interventions. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 11(3), 317-338.

Brown, J., & Wong, J.  (2017, June 6). How gratitude changes you and your brain. Greater Good Magazine. https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/how_gratitude_changes_you_and_your_brain

Burkholder, E., Blackmon, L., & Wieman, C. (2020) What factors impact student performance in introductory physics? PLoS ONE 15(12): e0244146. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0244146 

Diener, C. I., & Dweck, C. S. (1980). An analysis of learned helplessness: II. The processing of success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(5), 940-952. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.39.5.940

Dweck, C. S. (2008). Mindsets and math/science achievement. Carnegie Corp. of New York–Institute for Advanced Study Commission on Mathematics and Science Education.

Dweck, C. S. (2008). Mindset: The new psychology of success. Ballantine Books.

Dweck, C. S. (2015, September 22). Carol Dweck revisits the ‘growth mindset’. Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/leadership/opinion-carol-dweck-revisits-the-growth-mindset/2015/09 

Dweck, C. S., & Yeager, D. S. (2019). Mindsets: A view from two eras. Perspectives on Psychological science, 14(3), 481-496.

Freedman, M. P. (1997). Relationship among laboratory instruction, attitude toward science, and achievement in science knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 34(4), 343-357. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2736(199704)34:4<343::AID-TEA5>3.0.CO;2-R

Hennessey, J. (2018). Mindsets and the learning environment: Understanding the impact of “psychologically wise” classroom practices on student achievement. Mindset Scholars Network, 1-4.

Meiklejohn J., Phillips C., Freedman M. L., Griffin M. L., Biegel G. M., Roach A., Frank, J., Burke, C., Pinger, L., Soloway, G., Isberg, R., Sibinga, E., Grossman, L., & Saltzman, A.. (2012). Integrating mindfulness training into K-12 education: Fostering the resilience of teachers and students. Mindfulness 3, 291–307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0094-5 

Mindset Kit. (n.d.). Three simple cues that promote belonging. https://www.mindsetkit.org/belonging/cues-belonging/simple-cues-promote-belonging

Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Sriram, N., Lindner, N. M., Devos, T., Ayala, A., Bar-Anan, Y., Bergh, R., Cai, H., Gonsalkorale, K., Kesebir, S., Maliszewski, N., Neto, F., Olli, E., Park, J., Schnabel, K., Shiomura, K., Tulbure, B. T., Wiers, R. W., … Greenwald, A. G. (2009). National differences in gender–science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(26), 10593-10597. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0809921106

Romero, C. (2015). What we know about purpose and relevance from scientific research. Mindset Scholars Network.

Romero, C. (2018). What we know about belonging from scientific research. Mindset Scholars Network.

Sarrasin, J. B., Nenciovici, L., Foisy, L. M. B., Allaire-Duquette, G., Riopel, M., & Masson, S. (2018). Effects of teaching the concept of neuroplasticity to induce a growth mindset on motivation, achievement, and brain activity: A meta-analysis. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 12, 22-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tine.2018.07.003 

Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-efficacy and achievement behaviors. Educational Psychology Review, 1(3), 173-208. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01320134

Shrigley, R. L. (1990). Attitude and behavior are correlates. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(2), 97-113. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.3660270203

Stroman, C. (2021, March 1). Structures for belonging: A synthesis of research on belonging-supportive learning environments. Student Experience Research Network. https://studentexperiencenetwork.org/structures-for-belonging-a-synthesis-of-research-on-belonging-supportive-learning-environments/#

Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2007). A question of belonging: Race, social fit, and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 82-96. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.92.1.82

Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2011). A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science, 331(6023), 1447-1451. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1198364


Educator Expectations

Jussim, L., Eccles, J., & Madon, S. (1996). Social perception, social stereotypes, and teacher expectations: Accuracy and the quest for the powerful self-fulfilling prophecy. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, (Vol. 28, pp. 281–388). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60240-3

Jussim, L., & Harber, K. D. (2005). Teacher expectations and self-fulfilling prophecies: Knowns and unknowns, resolved and unresolved controversies. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(2), 131-155. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0902_3

Jussim, L., Robustelli, S. L., & Cain, T. R. (2009). Teacher expectations and self-fulfilling prophecies. In K. R. Wentzel, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school, (pp. 349-380). Routledge.

Martin, A. J. (2006). The relationship between teachers’ perceptions of student motivation and engagement and teachers’ enjoyment of and confidence in teaching. Asia‐Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 34(1), 73-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/13598660500480100

Nathan, M. J., & Koedinger, K. R. (2000). An investigation of teachers’ beliefs of students’ algebra development. Cognition and Instruction, 18(2), 209-237. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532690XCI1802_03

Nathan, M. J., & Petrosino, A. (2003). Expert blind spot among preservice teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 40(4), 905-928. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312040004905

Inquiry-, Problem-, & Project-Based Learning

Colley, K. E. (2006). Understanding ecology content knowledge and acquiring science process skills through project-based science instruction. Science Activities, 43(1), 26-33. https://doi.org/10.3200/SATS.43.1.26-33

English, M. C. , & Kitsantas, A. (2013). Supporting Student Self-Regulated Learning in Problem- and Project-Based Learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.7771/1541-5015.1339

Gibson, H. L., & Chase, C. (2002). Longitudinal impact of an inquiry‐based science program on middle school students’ attitudes toward science. Science Education, 86(5), 693-705. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.10039

Kanter, D. E., & Schreck, M. (2006). Learning content using complex data in project‐based science: An example from high school biology in urban classrooms. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2006(108), 77-91. https://doi.org/10.1002/tl.257

Stohr‐Hunt, P. M. (1996). An analysis of frequency of hands‐on experience and science achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(1), 101-109. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2736(199601)33:1<101::AID-TEA6>3.0.CO;2-Z

Kramer, D. (2008). Sea perch is a fun, hands-on approach to teaching science. Physics Today, 61(3), 22. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2897940

Liu, O. L., Lee, H. S., & Linn, M. C. (2010). Multifaceted assessment of inquiry-based science learning. Educational Assessment, 15(2), 69-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/10627197.2010.491067

Lord, T., & Orkwiszewski, T. (2006). Moving from didactic to inquiry-based instruction in a science laboratory. American Biology Teacher, 68(6), 342-345. https://doi.org/10.2307/4452009

National Academy Foundation and Pearson Foundation. (2011) Project-based learning: A resource for instructors and program coordinators. https://en.calameo.com/read/004202143ffcd40987809

Satterthwait, D. (2010). Why are ‘hands-on’ science activities so effective for student learning?. Teaching Science, 56(2), 7-10.

Thomas, J. W. (2000). A review of research on project-based learning. Autodesk Foundation.

Emotions & Learning

Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2016). Emotions, learning, and the brain: Exploring the educational implications of affective neuroscience. W. W. Norton.

Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1122-1131. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1122

Trigwell, K., Ellis, R. A., & Han, F. (2011). Relations between students’ approaches to learning, experienced emotions and outcomes of learning. Studies in Higher Education, 37(7), 811-824. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2010.549220

Tyng, C. M., Amin, H. U., Saad, M. N., & Malik, A. S. (2017). The influences of emotion on learning and memory. Frontiers in Psychology, 8,  Article 1454. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01454

Whiting, S. B., Wass, S. V., Green, S., & Thomas, M. S. (2021). Stress and learning in pupils: Neuroscience evidence and its relevance for teachers. Mind, Brain, and Education, 15(2), 177-188. https://doi.org/10.1111/mbe.12282

Relationships & Learning

Newberry, M. (2010). Identified phases in the building and maintaining of positive teacher-student relationships. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(8), 1695-1703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2010.06.022

Teven, J. J., & McCroskey, J. C. (1997). The relationship of perceived teacher caring with student learning and teacher evaluation. Communication Education, 46(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/03634529709379069

Wentzel, K. R. (2009). Peers and academic functioning at school. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 531–547). The Guilford Press.

Positive Education

Bott, D., Escamilia, H., Kaufman, S., Barry, K., Margaret L., Krekel, C., Schlicht-Schmälzle, R., Seldon, A., Seligman, M., & White, M. (2017). The state of positive education. World Government Summit, Dubai, UAE.

Madeson, M. (2017, February 24) Seligman’s PERMA+ model explained. A theory of well-being. PositivePsychology.com. https://positivepsychology.com/perma-model/

Nakamura J., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014) The concept of flow. In Csikszentmihalyi, M (Ed.), Flow and the foundations of positive psychology, (pp. 239-263). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9088-8_16

Norrish, J. M., Williams, P., O’Connor, M., & Robinson, J. (2013). An applied framework for positive education. International Journal of Wellbeing, 3(2), 147-161. https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v3i2.2

Seligman, M. E. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. Simon & Schuster.

Seligman, M. E. (2012). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. Atria Books.

Watz, M. (2011). An historical analysis of character education. Journal of Inquiry & Action in Education, 4(2), 34-53.

Social-Emotional Learning

CASEL. (n.d.). What is the CASEL framework? https://casel.org/fundamentals-of-sel/what-is-the-casel-framework/ 

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta‐analysis of school‐based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405-432. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x

Social and emotional learning: A short history. (2011, October 6). Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-history

Trauma-Sensitive Education

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Preventing adverse childhood experiences. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/fastfact.html

World Health Organization. (n.d.) Violence against children. https://www.who.int/health-topics/violence-against-children#tab=tab_1 


Ali, M. (2015, June 19). 2e children: How the see the invisible. Learning Ally. https://learningally.org/Blog/2e-children-how-to-see-the-invisible

Morin, A. (n.d.). 7 myths about twice-exceptional (2e) students. Understood. https://www.understood.org/articles/en/7-myths-about-twice-exceptional-2e-students

Szabos, J. (1989). Bright child, gifted learner. Challenge, 34(4), 3.

TEDx Talks. (2017, March 7). Twice-exceptional learners (2e) | Jim Russell [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H-THZbFEmWU

Learning Disorders

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.) Central auditory processing disorder. https://www.asha.org/Practice-Portal/Clinical-Topics/Central-Auditory-Processing-Disorder/

Division for Emotional & Behavioral Health. (2020, November 6). Behavior disorders: Definitions, characteristics & related information. Council for Exceptional Children. https://debh.exceptionalchildren.org/behavior-disorders-definitions-characteristics-related-information

LD Online. (2006). Timeline of learning disabilities. WETA. http://www.ldonline.org/article/11244/ 

Learning Disabilities Association of America. (n.d.). Types of learning disabilities. https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/

Mayes, S. D., & Calhoun, S. L. (2007). Learning, attention, writing, and processing speed in typical children and children with ADHD, autism, anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Child Neuropsychology, 13(6), 469-493. https://doi.org/10.1080/09297040601112773

Mayo Clinic Staff. (n.d.). Types of learning disabilities. Mayo Clinic. https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/

National Center for Learning Disabilities. (2017, January 27). Supporting academic success. https://www.ncld.org/research/state-of-learning-disabilities/supporting-academic-success/

No Child Left Behind Act. 9 U.S.C. § 9101 (2001). https://www.congress.gov/107/plaws/publ110/PLAW-107publ110.pdf 


Alloway, T. P. (2016, January 5). Dyslexia and working memory. Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/keep-it-in-mind/201601/dyslexia-and-working-memory

Hudson, R. F., High, L., & Otaiba, S. A. (2007). Dyslexia and the brain: What does current research tell us?. The Reading Teacher, 60(6), 506-515. 

International Dyslexia Association. (2020). Dyslexia basics. https://dyslexiaida.org/dyslexia-basics/https://doi.org/10.1598/RT.60.6.1

Mayo Clinic. (2017, July 22). Dyslexia. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.  https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dyslexia/symptoms-causes/syc-20353552  

Reading Horizons At-Home Solutions. (n.d.). Executive functioning and dyslexia symptoms. https://athome.readinghorizons.com/research/executive-functioning-and-dyslexia


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.) Autism spectrum disorder. https://www.asha.org/Practice-Portal/Clinical-Topics/Autism


Brown, T. E. (2009). ADD/ADHD and impaired executive function in clinical practice. Current Attention Disorders Reports, 1(1), 37-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-008-0065-7

Brown, T. E. (2006). Executive functions and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Implications of two conflicting views. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 53(1), 35-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/10349120500510024

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, September 23). Data and statistics about ADHD. National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html

Fayyad, J., Sampson, N. A., Hwang, I., Adamowski, T., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Al-Hamzawi, A., … & Kessler, R. C. (2017). The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV adult ADHD in the world health organization world mental health surveys. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 9(1), 47-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-016-0208-3

Pontifex, M. B., Saliba, B. J., Raine, L. B., Picchietti, D. L., & Hillman, C. H. (2013). Exercise improves behavioral, neurocognitive, and scholastic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The Journal of Pediatrics, 162(3), 543-551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.08.036 

The Understood Team. (n.d.). What is ADHD? https://www.understood.org/articles/en/what-is-adhd

Universal Design for Learning

CAST. (n.d.). The UDL guidelines. https://udlguidelines.cast.org/

The Brain

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2021, June 9). Brain basics: Know your brain. National Institutes of Health. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Know-Your-Brain

Herculano-Houzel, S. (2012). The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(Supplement 1), 10661-10668. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1201895109

Zull, J. E. (2002). The art of changing the brain: Enriching the practice of teaching by exploring the biology of learning. Stylus Publishing.


Costandi, M. (2016). Neuroplasticity. MIT Press.

Doidge, N. (2007). The brain that changes itself: Stories of personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science. Penguin Books.

Maguire, E. A., Woollett, K., & Spiers, H. J. (2006). London taxi drivers and bus drivers: a structural MRI and neuropsychological analysis. Hippocampus, 16(12), 1091-1101. https://doi.org/10.1002/hipo.20233

Learning Myths

De Bruyckere, P., Kirschner, P. A., & Hulshof, C. D. (2015). Urban myths about learning and education. Academic Press.

Howard-Jones, P. A. (2014). Neuroscience and education: myths and messages. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15(12), 817-824. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3817 

Kirschner, P. A. (2017). Stop propagating the learning styles myth. Computers & Education, 106, 166-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.12.006 

Sophisticated/Self-Regulated Learners

Bjork, R. A., Dunlosky, J., & Kornell, N. (2013). Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 417-444. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143823

Brockett, R. G., & Hiemstra, R. (1991). Self-direction in adult learning: Perspectives on theory, research, and practice. Routledge.

Cohen, M. (2012). The importance of self-regulation for college student learning. College Student Journal, 46(4), 892-902.

Kitsantas, A. (2002). Test preparation and performance: A self-regulatory analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 70(2), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220970209599501

Kornell, N., & Bjork, R. A. (2007). The promise and perils of self-regulated study. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(2), 219-224.

Isaacson, R., & Fujita, F. (2006). Metacognitive knowledge monitoring and self-regulated learning. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(1), 39-55.

Ng, W. (2008). Self-directed learning with web-based sites: How well do students’ perceptions and thinking match with their teachers? Teaching Science, 54(2), 27-30. 

Paris, S. G., & Paris, A. H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 89-101. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3602_4

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 91-105. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326985EP3702_4

Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 33-40. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.82.1.33

Quigley, A., & Stringer, E. (2018). Metacognition and self-regulated learning: Guidance report. Education Endowment Foundation. https://d2tic4wvo1iusb.cloudfront.net/eef-guidance-reports/metacognition/EEF_Metacognition_and_self-regulated_learning.pdf?v=1635355221

Schunk, D. , & Zimmerman, B. (2006). Competence and control beliefs: Distinguishing the means and ends. In P. A. Alexander, & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology, (2nd ed., pp. 349-367). American Psychological Association.

Steiner, H. H. (2016). The strategy project: Promoting self-regulated learning through an authentic assignment. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 28(2), 271-282.

Thiede, K. W., & Dunlosky, J. (1999). Toward a general model of self-regulated study: An analysis of selection of items for study and self-paced study time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25(4), 1024-1037. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.25.4.1024

Yan, V. X., Thai, K., & Bjork, R. A. (2014). Habits and beliefs that guide self-regulated learning: Do they vary with mindset? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3(3), 140-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.04.003 

Yeager, D. S., Henderson, M. D., Paunesku, D., Walton, G. M., D’Mello, S., Spitzer, B. J., & Duckworth, A. L. (2014). Boring but important: A self-transcendent purpose for learning fosters academic self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(4), 559-580. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037637

Mastery & Transfer

Boser, U. (2017). Learn better: Mastering the skills for success in life, business, and school, or, how to become an expert in just about anything. Rodale.

Cooper, G., & Sweller, J. (1987). Effects of schema acquisition and rule automation on mathematical problem-solving transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(4), 347-362. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.79.4.347

Gick, M. L., & Holyoak, K. J. (1980). Analogical problem solving. Cognitive Psychology, 12(3), 306-355. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(80)90013-4

Lowenstein, J., Thompson, L., & Gentner, D. (2003). Analogical learning in negotiation teams: Comparing cases promotes learning and transfer. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 2(2), 119-127.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amle.2003.9901663

Paas, F. G., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills: A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(1), 122-133. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.86.1.122

Schmidt, R. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). New conceptualizations of practice: Common principles in three paradigms suggest new concepts for training. Psychological Science, 3(4), 207-218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1992.tb00029.x

Effective Learning Strategies (General)

Kim, D., Kim, B. N., Lee, K., Park, J. K., Hong, S., & Kim, H. (2008). Effects of cognitive learning strategies for Korean learners: A meta-analysis. Asia Pacific Education Review, 9(4), 409-422.

Effective Teaching Strategies (General)

Agodini, R., Harris, B., Atkins-Burnett, S., Heaviside, S., Novak, T., & Murphy, R. (2009). Achievement effects of four early elementary school math curricula: Findings from first graders in 39 schools. NCEE 2009-4052. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20094052/pdf/20094052.pdf

Akkus, R., Gunel, M., & Hand, B. (2007). Comparing an inquiry‐based approach known as the science writing heuristic to traditional science teaching practices: Are there differences?. International Journal of Science Education, 29(14), 1745-1765. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690601075629

Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. John Wiley & Sons. https://firstliteracy.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/How-Learning-Works.pdf

American Psychological Association (2015). Top 20 principles from psychology for preK–12 teaching and learning. http://www.apa.org/ed/schools/cpse/top-twenty-principles.pdf

Balduf, M. (2009). Underachievement among college students. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20(2), 274-294. https://doi.org/10.1177/1932202X0902000204

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at university. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Bullmaster-Day, M. L. (2011). Let the learner do the learning: What we know about effective teaching. Graduate School of Education Lander Center for Educational Research. https://quespaco.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/let_the_learner_do_the_learning.pdf

Chew, S. L., & Cerbin, W. J. (2021). The cognitive challenges of effective teaching. The Journal of Economic Education, 52(1), 17-40.

Donker, A. S., De Boer, H., Kostons, D., Van Ewijk, C. D., & van der Werf, M. P. (2014). Effectiveness of learning strategy instruction on academic performance: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 11, 1-26.

Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1  

Pashler, H., Bain, P. M., Bottge, B. A., Graesser, A., Koedinger, K., McDaniel, M., & Metcalfe, J. (2007). Organizing instruction and study to improve student learning: A practice guide. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/Docs/PracticeGuide/20072004.pdf 

Roediger, H. L., III, & Pyc, M. A. (2012). Inexpensive techniques to improve education: Applying cognitive psychology to enhance educational practice. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1(4), 242-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmac.2012.09.002 

Steiner, H. H., Dean, M. L., Foote, S. M., & Goldfine, R. A. (2016). The targeted learning community: A comprehensive approach to promoting the success of first-year students in general chemistry. In L. C. Schmidt, & J. Graziano (Eds.), Building synergy for high impact educational initiatives: First-year seminars and learning communities. National Resource Center.

Svinicki, M., & McKeachie, W. (2013). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (14th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Yildirim, İ., Cirak-Kurt, S., & Sedat, S. E. N. (2019). The effect of teaching “learning strategies” on academic achievement: A meta-analysis study. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 19(79), 87-114. https://doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2019.79.5

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