Research Base

Research Base

Scientific Literature Supporting COGx Programs

COGx programs involve translation of research from over 500 scientific sources. The scientific literature below is a subset of the literature we have used and organized by subject area to facilitate access. In addition, we have worked directly with some of the authors of the scientific literature to help us translate and co-create our programs. Many of the scientific papers cited below were written by COGx Academic Partners.

▼ Metacognition

Assessing our own competence: Heuristics and illusions.
(Bjork, 1999; Attention and Performance XVII: Cognitive Regulation of Performance)

Self-regulated learning: Beliefs, techniques, and illusions.
(Bjork, Dunlosky & Kornell, 2013; The Annual Review of Psychology)

Habits and beliefs that guide self-regulated learning: Do they vary with mindset?
(Yan, Thai & Bjork, 2014; Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition)

▼ Effective Feedback

How to give effective feedback to your students.
(Brookhart, 2008; Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development)

Validity and reliability of scaffolded peer assessment of writing from instructor and student perspectives.
(Cho, Schunn, & Wilson, 2006; Journal of Educational Psychology)

Structuring peer interaction to promote high-level cognitive processing.
(King, 2002; Theory Into Practice)

Feedback in written instruction.
(Kulhavy, 1977; Review of Educational Research)

Classroom assessment, minute by minute, day by day.
(Leahy, Lyon, Thompson, & William, 2005; Educational Leadership)

The role of the teacher in making sense of classroom experiences and effecting better learning.
(Minstrell, 2001; Cognition and instruction: Twenty-five years of progress)

Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems.
(Sadler, 1989; Instructional Science)

Opening classroom interaction: The importance of feedback.
(Smith & Higgins, 2006; Cambridge Journal of Education)

▼ Executive Function

Executive function and the frontal lobes: A meta-analytic review.
(Alvarez & Emory, 2006; Neuropsychology Review)

ADD/ADHD and impaired executive function in clinical practice.
(Brown, 2009; Current Attention Disorders Report)

Executive functions and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Implications of two conflicting views.
(Brown, 2006; International Journal of Disability, Development and Education)

Assessment of executive functions: Review of instruments and identification of critical issues.
(Chan, 2008; Archives of Clinical Neurospychology)

Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old.
(Diamond & Lee, 2011; Science)

Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control.
(Engle & Kane, 2004; The Psychology of Learning and Motivation)

Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving.
(Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology)

The relationship between working memory capacity and executive functioning: Evidence for a common executive attention construct.
(McCabe, Roediger, McDaniel, Balota, & Hambrick, 2010; Neuropsychology)

▼ Understanding Cognitive Diversity for Equity

A framework for designing scaffolds that improve motivation and cognition.
(Belland, Kim & Hannafin, 2013; Educational Psychologist)

Student disengagement in relation to expected and unexpected educational pathways.
(Blondal & Adalbjarnardottir, 2012; Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research)

Student Enthusiasm Falls as High School Graduation Nears.
(Calderon & Yu, 2020)

This time it’s personal: The memory benefit of hearing oneself.
(Forrin & MacLeod, 2018; Memory)

School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence.
(Fredricks, Blumenfeld & Paris, 2004; Review of Educational Research)

Motivation interventions in education.
(Hulleman & Barron, 2015; Handbook of Educational Psychology)

Don’t Call Them Dropouts: Understanding the Experiences of Young People Who Leave High School before Graduation.
(Hynes, 2014; Center for Promise)

Gallup Student Poll: Engaged today—ready for tomorrow.
(Gallup, 2015; US Overall)

Relationships between student engagement and academic achievement: A meta-analysis.
(Lei, Cui, & Zhou, 2018; Social Behavior and Personality)

The relationship between teachers’ perceptions of student motivation and engagement and teachers’ enjoyment of and confidence in teaching.
(Martin, 2006; Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education)

What is student engagement and why is it important?
(Martin & Torres, 2016; National Association of Independent Schools)

How many are talking? The role of collectivity in dialogic teaching.
(Sedlacek & Sedova, 2017; International Journal of Educational Research)

The relationship of perceived teacher caring with student learning and teacher evaluation.
(Teven & McCroskey, 1997; Communication Education)

Peers and academic functioning at school.
(Wentzel, 2009; Social, Emotional, and Personality Development in Context. Handbook of Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups.)

Trajectories and patterns of student engagement: Evidence from a longitudinal study.
(Wylie & Hodgen, 2012; Handbook of Research on Student Engagement)

▼ Processing Skills

The relationships among working memory, math anxiety, and performance.
(Ashcraft & Kirk, 2001; Journal of Experimental Psychology: General)

Working memory: Looking back and looking forward.
(Baddeley, 2003; Nature Reviews: Neuroscience)

Working memory, thought and action.
(Baddeley, 2007; Oxford University Press)

Working memory and the vividness of imagery.
(Baddeley & Andrade, 2000; Journal of Experimental Psychology)

Working memory.
(Baddeley & Hitch, 1974; The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory)

Controlled attention and storage: An investigation of the relationship between working memory, short-term memory, scope of attention and intelligence in children.
(Kuhn, 2016; Learning and Individual Differences)

Why Our Children Can’t Read and What We Can Do About It: A Scientific Revolution in Reading.
(McGuinness, 1999; Simon & Schuster)

Differentiating Simple Versus Complex Processing Speed: Influence on New Learning and Memory Performance.
(Chiaravalloti et al, 2003; Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology)

Knowledge and Processing Speed as Determinants of Associative Learning.
(Kyllonen, Tirre & Christal, 1991; Journal of Experimental Psychology General)

Media Multitasking and Memory: Differences in Working Memory and Long-Term Memory.
(Uncapher, Thieu & Wagner, 2016; Psychonomic Bulletin & Review)

Slow Processing Speed: What You Need to Know.
(Kelly, 2014-2020; Understood)

Want Children to “Pay Attention”? Make Their Brains Curious!
(Willis, 2010; Psychology Today)

▼ Active Learning

Peer sharing facilitates the effect of inquiry-based projects on science learning.
(Chung & Behan, 2010; American Biology Teacher)

Hands-on versus teacher-centered experiments in soil ecology.
(Randler & Hulde, 2007; Research in Science and Technological Education)

Why are ‘hands-on’ science activities so effective for student learning?
(Satterthwait, 2010; Teaching Science: The Journal of Australian Science Teachers Association)

Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning. 
(Bjork & Bjork, 2011; Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society.)

Enhancing student performance through cooperative learning in physical sciences.
(Gupta, 2004; Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education)

The effects of cooperative learning experience on eight grade students’ achievement and attitude toward science.
(Kose, Sahin, Ergu, & Gezer, 2010; Education )

The critical role of retrieval practice in long-term retention.
(Roediger & Butler, 2011; Trends in Cognitive Sciences)

Using quizzes to enhance summative-assessment performance in a web-based class: An experimental study.
(McDaniel, Wildman & Anderson, 2011; Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition)

Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping.
(Karpicke & Blunt, 2011; Science)

How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school.
(National Research Council, 2000; National Academy Press)

▼ Emotions & Learning

Malleability, plasticity, and individuality: How children learn and develop in context.
(Cantor, Osher, Berg, Steyer & Rose, 2018; Applied Developmental Science)

Educating the whole child: Improving school climate to support student success.
(Darling-Hammond & Cook-Harvey, 2018; Learning Policy Institute)

The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions.
(Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor & Schellinger, 2011; Child Development)

Social and emotional learning: A short history.
(Edutopia, 2011)

Structures for belonging: A synthesis of research on belonging – Supportive learning environments.
(Healey & Stroman, 2021; Student Experience Research Network)

Mindsets and the learning environment: Evidence from half a million students on the importance of belonging in schools.
(Hennessey, 2018; Mindset Scholars Network)

Emotions, learning, and the brain: Exploring the educational implications of affective neuroscience.
(Immordino-Yang, 2016; Norton & Co., Inc.)

Three simple cues that promote belonging.
(Mindset Kit)

Identified phases in the building and maintaining of positive teacher–student relationships.
(Newberry, 2010; Teaching and Teacher Education)

Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research.
(Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, & Perry, 2002; Educational Psychologist)

What we know about belonging from scientific research.
(Romero, 2018; Mindset Scholars Network)

What we know about purpose & relevance from scientific research.
(Romero, 2015; Mindset Scholars Network)

The Influences of Emotion on Learning and Memory.
(Tyng, Amin, Saad, & Malik, 2017; Frontiers in Psychology)

A question of belonging: Race, social fit, and achievement.
Walton & Cohen, 2007; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology)

A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students.
(Walton & Cohen, 2011; Science)

Boring but important: A self-transcendent purpose for learning fosters academic self-regulation.
(Yeager, Henderson, D’Mello, Paunesku, Walton, Spitzer, & Duckworth, 2014; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology)

▼ Engagement & Motivation

Dyslexia and Working Memory
(Alloway, 2016; Psychology Today)

Autism Spectrum Disorder. 
(America Speech-Language-Hearing Association)

Central Auditory Processing Disorder. 
(America Speech-Language-Hearing Association)

Behavior disorders: Definitions, characteristics & related information.
(Council for Exceptional Children)

School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence.
(Fredricks, Blumenfeld & Paris, 2004; Review of Educational Research)

Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us? 
(Hudson, High, & Otaiba, n.d., LD Online)

Dyslexia Basic. 
(International Dyslexia Association)

2e children: How to see the invisible. 
(Learning Ally)

Types of Learning Disabilities 
(Learning Disabilities Association of America)

(Mayo Clinic)

Executive Function Strategies: The Building Blocks for Reading to Learn
(Meltzer & Greschler, 2018; International Dyslexia Association)

Executive Functioning and Dyslexia Symptoms
(Reading Horizons At-Home Solutions)

Twice Exceptional Learners (2e)
(Russell; TED Talk)

What is ADHD

Large-scale comparison of science teaching methods sends clear message.
(Wieman, 2014; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America)

▼ Memory

Ask the Cognitive Scientist: What Will Improve a Student’s Memory?
(Willingham, 2008-2009; American Educator)

Forgetting as a friend of learning: Implications for teaching and self-regulated learning.
(Bjork & Bjork, 2019; Advances in Physiology Education)

The myth that blocking one’s study or practice by topic or skill enhances learning.
(Bjork & Bjork, 2019; Education Myths)

Making things hard on yourself, but in a good way: Creating desirable difficulties to enhance learning.
(Bjork & Bjork, 2014; Psychology and the real world: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society, 2nd ed.)

Self-Regulated Learning Beliefs, Techniques, and Illusions.
(Bjork, Dunlosky, & Kornell, 2013; Annual Review of Psychology)

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